Occupational Therapy -> Fine Motor Skills

Fine Motor Skills

Fine motor skills require the control or coordination of small muscles, involving the hands, often times hands and eyes are coordinated together to complete tasks using small muscles. Occupational therapists address fine motor skills through therapeutic activities for practice and teaching, strengthening, adaption of tasks and/or materials (i.e. pencil grip), and education of specific techniques.

Reference links

  • Effectiveness of a 10-Week Tier-1 Response to Intervention Program In Improving Fine Motor and Visual–Motor Skills In General Education Kindergarten Students 2
    Author: Ohl, Graze, Weber, Kenny, Salvatore, & Wagreich - Tier 1 RtI approach to be effective in improving the fine motor and visual–motor skills of kindergarten children at the beginning of the school year. Occupational therapy practitioners have a beneficial role in contributing effective Tier 1 strategy and practices that support the needs of students in the classroom environment. Short-term interventions can have a significant effect on the fine motor and visual–motor integration skills required for handwriting readiness. Collaboration provides teachers with skills and tools they can use in the future with or without the occupational therapy practitioner present Citation: Alisha M. Ohl, Hollie Graze, Karen Weber, Sabrina Kenny, Christie Salvatore, Sarah Wagreich; Effectiveness of a 10-Week Tier-1 Response to Intervention Program in Improving Fine Motor and Visual–Motor Skills in General Education Kindergarten Students. Am J Occup Ther September/October 2013, Vol. 67(5), 507–514. doi: https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2013.008110
  • Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines For Early Childhood: Birth–5 Years 2
    Author: Clark and Kingsley - Cognitive delays: home-, community-, and preschool-based interventions. To address cognitive development in premature infants, use of NIDCAP, home-based EI, touch-based interventions, and reading aloud to the child and incorporating home programs when working in clinics. The REDI program, the Read It Again program, and teaching specific cognitive skills all improved cognitive outcomes for a range of preschool-age children who were at risk for or had a specific diagnosis associated with developmental delays. Infant–maternal attachment: skin-to-skin, KC, and parent training programs such as the MIT program. The Incredible Years, MIT, and teacher training in PBIS were all effective in improving child behavior. Parenting behaviors: direct parent training, the Incredible Years, and PCIT. Parent-delivered massage, attachment training, and the Play Project are all interventions that showed a significant impact on parental stress, anxiety, or depression. Motor outcomes: use of NIDCAP, CIMT, and BIT for children at risk for and diagnosed with CP. Home-based interventions using parent coaching and clinic-based interventions that used home programs were also effective for short-term motor development, underscoring the value and benefit of well-written home programs and coaching parents to support their child’s development. Feeding and eating: repeated-exposure interventions, nonnutritive suck, and parent training to support the child’s feeding and eating are all effective options. Toileting: The use of a wetting alarm is supported when toilet training toddlers. Sleep: use of parent training, positioning devices in the NICU, and touch-based interventions are all effective. Citation: Gloria Frolek Clark, Karrie L. Kingsley; Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Early Childhood: Birth–5 Years. Am J Occup Ther May/June 2020, Vol. 74(3), 7403397010p1–7403397010p42. doi: https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.743001
  • The Impact of An Occupational Therapy–Based Handwriting Program For a Preschool Student 0
    Author: Breanna Taylor, Hailey Speight, Margaret McKinney, Elizabeth Carter, Lesly James, Denise Donica - Population: Pre K Results: Improvements in letter formation and posture. Learning the structure of each letter and how to increase fine motor abilities. Implication: A structured, occupational therapy led handwriting program with ongoing collaboration and coaching maximizes student performance Citation: Breanna Taylor, Hailey Speight, Margaret McKinney, Elizabeth Carter, Lesly James, Denise Donica; The Impact of an Occupational Therapy–Based Handwriting Program for a Preschool Student. Am J Occup Ther August 2020, Vol. 74(4_Supplement_1), 7411515453p1. doi: https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.74S1-PO9130
  • How An SLP and OT Collaborate Long-Distance - The ASHA Leader BLOG 1
    Author: Stephanie Sigal, MA, CCC-SLP, Michelle Bonang, OTR/L - As speech-language pathologists, we all experience stories of working as an interdisciplinary team. In this story, co-treatment brought us together and keeps us in touch today. Our relationship naturally affected us professionally, but personally as well. This story shares some of my adventures—I’m Stephanie Sigal, an SLP in Manhattan, with my friend and colleague Michelle Bonang, an occupational therapist in Vermont. Together, we teach each other invaluable skills.
  • Fine Motor Skill 0
    Author: Wikipedia - Fine motor skill (or dexterity) is the coordination of small muscles, in movements—usually involving the synchronisation of hands and fingers—with the eyes. The complex levels of manual dexterity that humans exhibit can be attributed to and demonstrated in tasks controlled by the nervous system. Fine motor skills aid in the growth of intelligence and develop continuously throughout the stages of human development.
  • Medicare Guidelines For Group Therapy 1
    Author: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) - Medicare Benefit Policy Manual, Chapter 15 230-Practice of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech-Language Pathology A. Group Therapy Services. Contractors pay for outpatient physical therapy services (which includes outpatient speech-language pathology services) and outpatient occupational therapy services provided simultaneously to two or more individuals by a practitioner as group therapy services (97150). The individuals can be, but need not be, performing the same activity. The physician or therapist involved in group therapy services must be in constant attendance, but one-on-one patient contact is not required. The Medicare Benefit Policy Manual does not establish a specific restriction on the use of group therapy, particularly as it pertains to the size of the group. In the absence of such guidance, speech-language pathologists must refer to the LCD developed by their MAC to determine any such restrictions. LCDs may be accessed through the Medicare Coverage Database.
  • The Importance of Cursive Handwriting Over Typewriting For Learning In the Classroom: A High-Density EEG Study of 12-Year-Old Children and Young Adults 1
    Author: Eva Ose Askvik, F. R. (Ruud) Van Der Weel and Audrey L. H. Van Der Meer* - In a recent EEG study, Van der Meer and Van der Weel (2017) found that drawing by hand activated larger networks in the brain compared to typewriting and concluded that the involvement of fine hand movements in note-taking, as opposed to simply pressing a key on a keyboard, may be more beneficial for learning, especially when encoding new information.
  • Interventions Within the Scope of Occupational Therapy Practice to Improve Motor Performance For Children Ages 0–5 Years: A Systematic Review 2
    Author: Tanner, Schmidt, Martin, & Bassi - Themes: Early intervention for children younger than age 3 yr, interventions for preschool children ages 3–5 yr, and interventions for children with or at risk for cerebral palsy. Occupational therapy practitioners may consider using NIDCAP, home-based parent coaching, massage, home programming, and CareToy for children younger than age 3 yr; video games, preschool programs, and movement breaks for children ages 3–5 yr; and EI, CIMT, and BIT or child- and context-focused interventions for children with CP ages 3–5 yr. Interventions for children younger than age 3 yr should actively include parents during interventions and in home program development. For children with CP, interventions should use components of motor learning, specifically emphasizing goal-oriented, activity-based therapy and frequent task practice. Citation: Kelly Tanner, Elizabeth Schmidt, Kristen Martin, Margaret Bassi; Interventions Within the Scope of Occupational Therapy Practice to Improve Motor Performance for Children Ages 0–5 Years: A Systematic Review. Am J Occup Ther March/April 2020, Vol. 74(2), 7402180060p1–7402180060p40. doi: https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.039644
  • Handwriting Development, Competency, and Intervention 0
    Author: Feder, & Majnemer - Handwriting difficulties may be the result of intrinsic factors such as poor component skills, extrinsic considerations such as academic environment and biomechanics. Developmental Stages of Handwriting: Scribbling Imitating vertical strokes (age 2y) Imitating horizontal strokes (age 2y 6mo) Imitating circles (age 3y). Imitating and copying a cross (age 4y) Copying square (5) Copying triangle (5y 6mo) Quality Development: Quickly (grade 1 6–7y) and plateau (grade 2 7–8y). Automatic, organized, tool for idea development (grade 3 8-9y) Speed of writing is somewhat linear Handwriting measures: Letter formation, spacing, size, slant, and/or alignment, speed, Citation: Feder, & Majnemer, A. (2007). Handwriting development, competency, and intervention. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49(4), 312–317. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00312.x
  • The Rehab Therapist’s Guide to Co-Treatment Under Medicare - Recommended Co-Treatment Guidelines Based On CMS’s Regulations. 1
    Author: Brooke Andrus, Ryan Giebel PT, DPT, OCS, CMTPT/DN - There is one important point to keep in mind, courtesy of joint guidelines for co-treatment created by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), and the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA): Therapists billing under either Part A or Part B should only provide co-treatment if the purpose for such treatment is to enhance the quality of care the patient receives. Practitioners should never co-treat simply because it is logistically more convenient to do so. If the therapists believe co-treatment is the best way to help the patient progress toward his or her goals, they must clearly document that rationale within their notes. Finally, therapists should not provide therapy in more than two disciplines during a single session Medicare Part A Co-Treatment Rules If, during a single treatment session, a patient receives therapy from two different practitioners working in two different disciplines (e.g., PT and OT), both therapists can bill for the entire treatment session separately. Each treating therapist, however, must ensure the length of time billed as co-treatment is equal in each other’s accounts. Medicare Part B Co-Treatment Rules If two therapists provide treatment—whether that treatment includes the same or different services—to a single patient at the same time, neither therapist can bill separately for the full session.
  • Milestone Moments 1
    Author: Centers For Disease Control and Prevention - These developmental milestones show what most children (75% or more) can do by each age. Subject matter experts selected these milestones based on available data and expert consensus.
  • Joint Guidelines For Therapy Co-Treatment Under Medicare 1
    Author: The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) - Co-treatment may be appropriate when practitioners from different professional disciplines can effectively address their treatment goals while the patient is engaged in a single therapy session. For example, a patient may address cognitive goals for sequencing as part of a speech-language pathology (SLP) treatment session while the physical therapist (PT) is training the patient to use a wheelchair. Or a patient may address ADL goals for increasing independence as part of an occupational therapy (OT) treatment session while the PT addresses balance retraining with the patient to increase independence with mobility. Co-treatment is appropriate when coordination between the two disciplines will benefit the patient, not simply for scheduling convenience. Documentation should clearly indicate the rationale for co-treatment and state the goals that will be addressed through this method of intervention. Co-treatment sessions should be documented as such by each practitioner, stating which goals were addressed and the progress made. Co-treatment should be limited to two disciplines providing interventions during one treatment session.
  • Therapy Co-Treatment Scenarios and Documentation - Harmony Healthcare International (HHI) Blog 1
    Author: Kris Mastrangelo, OTR/L, LNHA, MBA - PT and OT appear to be a natural pairing because of the treatment crossover in neuromuscular and orthopedic deficit remediation. However, patients also benefit from co-treatments with SLP and OT, for interventions such as self feeding. During these types of therapeutic collaborations, OT can address postural alignment, positioning, adaptive equipment, and the motor sequence of self feeding, while the SLP addresses bolus size, rate of presentation, and any specific strategies identified to reduce the risk of aspiration; such as chin tuck swallow, or multiple swallows per bolus. Examples of appropriate goals in support of co-treatment follow: Patient will demonstrate self feeding skills with setup assistance x 4/5 consecutive sessions x 14 days, while applying swallow safety strategies with minimal verbal cueing. Patient will demonstrate lower body dressing skills with minimum assist while maintaining standing balance in order to complete the task safely in preparation for return to ALF.
  • Your Child’s Early Development is a Journey 1
    Author: Centers For Disease Control and Prevention - Skills such as taking the first step, smiling for the first time, and waving “bye-bye” are called developmental milestones. Children reach milestones in how they play, learn, speak, act, and move. Click on the age of your child to see the milestones:

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  • Neurological Conditions - Types of neurological conditions may include: Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementias, Brain Cancer, Epilepsy and Other Seizure Disorders, Mental Disorders, Parkinson’s and Other Movement Disorders, and Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA).



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