Occupational Therapy -> Gross Motor Skills

Gross Motor Skills

Gross motor skills require the control and coordination of large muscles in the body often including the arms and/or legs. Occupational therapists address gross motor skills as they relate to important daily routines and activities for example: a child participating in recess or physical education, an adult transferring into and out of the shower, a child sitting on the floor for learning. Occupational therapists may collaborate with physical therapists when implementing interventions and strategies to improve gross motor skills.

Reference links

    Author: World Health Organization - Physical activity is good for hearts, bodies and minds. Regular physical activity can improve physical fitness; improve heart, vascular and metabolic health, and bone health; and reduce adiposity in children and adolescents (1). Being active can also improve cognitive function, including academic performance and mental health, and can reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety (1). In contrast, too much sedentary behavior can be unhealthy; it increases the risk of obesity and poorer fitness and cardiometabolic health and can affect sleep duration
  • Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines For Early Childhood: Birth–5 Years 2
    Author: Clark and Kingsley - Cognitive delays: home-, community-, and preschool-based interventions. To address cognitive development in premature infants, use of NIDCAP, home-based EI, touch-based interventions, and reading aloud to the child and incorporating home programs when working in clinics. The REDI program, the Read It Again program, and teaching specific cognitive skills all improved cognitive outcomes for a range of preschool-age children who were at risk for or had a specific diagnosis associated with developmental delays. Infant–maternal attachment: skin-to-skin, KC, and parent training programs such as the MIT program. The Incredible Years, MIT, and teacher training in PBIS were all effective in improving child behavior. Parenting behaviors: direct parent training, the Incredible Years, and PCIT. Parent-delivered massage, attachment training, and the Play Project are all interventions that showed a significant impact on parental stress, anxiety, or depression. Motor outcomes: use of NIDCAP, CIMT, and BIT for children at risk for and diagnosed with CP. Home-based interventions using parent coaching and clinic-based interventions that used home programs were also effective for short-term motor development, underscoring the value and benefit of well-written home programs and coaching parents to support their child’s development. Feeding and eating: repeated-exposure interventions, nonnutritive suck, and parent training to support the child’s feeding and eating are all effective options. Toileting: The use of a wetting alarm is supported when toilet training toddlers. Sleep: use of parent training, positioning devices in the NICU, and touch-based interventions are all effective. Citation: Gloria Frolek Clark, Karrie L. Kingsley; Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Early Childhood: Birth–5 Years. Am J Occup Ther May/June 2020, Vol. 74(3), 7403397010p1–7403397010p42. doi: https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.743001
  • Medicare Guidelines For Group Therapy 1
    Author: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) - Medicare Benefit Policy Manual, Chapter 15 230-Practice of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech-Language Pathology A. Group Therapy Services. Contractors pay for outpatient physical therapy services (which includes outpatient speech-language pathology services) and outpatient occupational therapy services provided simultaneously to two or more individuals by a practitioner as group therapy services (97150). The individuals can be, but need not be, performing the same activity. The physician or therapist involved in group therapy services must be in constant attendance, but one-on-one patient contact is not required. The Medicare Benefit Policy Manual does not establish a specific restriction on the use of group therapy, particularly as it pertains to the size of the group. In the absence of such guidance, speech-language pathologists must refer to the LCD developed by their MAC to determine any such restrictions. LCDs may be accessed through the Medicare Coverage Database.
  • Gross Motor Skills | Gross Motor Skills Development 0
    Author: Kid Sense - Occupational Therapy helps children with gross motor skills by developing: muscle strength, endurance, balance, coordination & postural control.
  • Milestone Moments 1
    Author: Centers For Disease Control and Prevention - These developmental milestones show what most children (75% or more) can do by each age. Subject matter experts selected these milestones based on available data and expert consensus.

Activity List(s)

Visual Schedule Cards

Related Disorder(s)

  • Neurological Conditions - Types of neurological conditions may include: Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementias, Brain Cancer, Epilepsy and Other Seizure Disorders, Mental Disorders, Parkinson’s and Other Movement Disorders, and Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA).


Goal Bank

  • To demonstrate improved gross motor movements, Peter will catch a ball during play 90% of the time by May 1, 2023 . 0