Occupational Therapy -> Instrumental Activities of Daily Living

Instrumental Activities of Daily Living

Activities in which a person engages with his or her environment in order to maintain independent living. Instrumental activities of daily living are often not engaged in until later in childhood, the teenage years or early adulthood. IADLs include care of others, child rearing, care of pets, communication device use, community mobility, financial management, health management and maintenance, home establishment and management, meal preparation and clean up, religious observance, shopping, and safety procedures and emergency maintenance. Occupational therapists can address any and all IADLs including underlying skills required in order to promote independent living.

Minor focus areas

Related Disorder(s)

  • Neurological Conditions - Types of neurological conditions may include: Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementias, Brain Cancer, Epilepsy and Other Seizure Disorders, Mental Disorders, Parkinson’s and Other Movement Disorders, and Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA).
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder - Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that may occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, a serious accident, a terrorist act, war/combat, or rape or who have been threatened with death, sexual violence or serious injury.

Goal Bank

  • In order to demonstrate safety and improved function within the occupation of IADLs, Peter will respond to a fire drill in a coordinated and appropriate manner by following verbal instructions on 3 /4 times by the end of the academic year . 0
  • With a visual schedule, bullets of activity expectations, and sequence predictability, together with multimodal communication opportunities (verbal, AAC, pics, typing, gestures), Jody will engage in purposeful activity with fading modeling in 4 /5 opportunities across the school settings to improve engagement and participation and to actively advocate for adaptation of the same environment to better match her needs, in 6 months. 0

Reference links

  • Nurturing Care For Early Childhood Development 1 Author: World Health Organization - Your loving care as a parent is what a child needs to be healthy, wellnourished and safe. • Communicate early and often, starting even before your baby is born. It will help you build a warm and loving relationship. • Make time to play with your child and engage them in your daily chores. You will help your child to learn, be happy and thrive. • Remember that feeding times are periods of learning and love – talk to your child while feeding and make eye to eye contact. • If you feel sad and unable to respond joyfully to your child, seek help from your health care provider.
  • Nurturing Care For Early Childhood Development 1 Author: World Health Organization - Your loving care as a parent is what a child needs to be healthy, wellnourished and safe. • Communicate early and often, starting even before your baby is born. It will help you build a warm and loving relationship. • Make time to play with your child and engage them in your daily chores. You will help your child to learn, be happy and thrive. • Remember that feeding times are periods of learning and love – talk to your child while feeding and make eye-to-eye contact. • If you feel sad and unable to respond joyfully to your child, seek help from your health care provider
  • Effectiveness of Pediatric Occupational Therapy For Children With Disabilities: A Systematic Review 1 Author: Iona Novak and Ingrid Honan - A. Parent partnership within an occupational therapist intervention is effective and worthwhile Occupational Therapists embrace the principles of family-centered care (Hanna & Rodger, 2002), where the parent is the decision-maker and the expert in knowing their child, and the therapist is a technical resource to the family. B. Activities-based, ‘top-down’ interventions deliver bigger gains. Numerous occupational therapy interventions exist, aiming to improve motor, behavioral and functional outcomes (Fig. 3), affording many choices to families and clinicians. The greatest number of effective green light interventions was at the activity level of the ICF, indicating that daily life skills training using a ‘top-down’ approach is a strength of the occupational therapy profession.
  • PROMOTING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY THROUGH SCHOOLS: POLICY BRIEF 1 Author: World Health Organization - Physical activity is good for hearts, bodies and minds. Regular physical activity can improve physical fitness; improve heart, vascular and metabolic health, and bone health; and reduce adiposity in children and adolescents (1). Being active can also improve cognitive function, including academic performance and mental health, and can reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety (1). In contrast, too much sedentary behavior can be unhealthy; it increases the risk of obesity and poorer fitness and cardiometabolic health and can affect sleep duration
  • Parents' Experiences of Professionals' Involvement For Children With Extreme Demand Avoidance 0 Author: Emma Gore Langton 1, Norah Frederickson 1 - Parents felt positive about practitioners who had listened to their experiences, made efforts to understand the child, and provided or arranged for help. Parents found involvement most helpful when it resulted in comprehensive assessment, appropriate intervention, practical advice and management strategies, and a focus on the well-being of all family members. The overall ratings of helpfulness are encouraging, and the specific feedback about what is most helpful could be of value in shaping services.
  • Leveling Up Regulatory Support Through Community Collaboration 1 Author: Amy C. Laurenta and Jacquelyn Fede - While behavioral intervention methodologies and societal expectations for masking remain prevalent, in recent years, there has been a greater emphasis placed on understanding the underlying factors contributing to problematic and challenging behaviors. Furthermore, there has been greater recognition of the need to address those underlying factors as the primary areas to target for effective intervention that can actually help autistic individuals navigate their environments in school and as they transition out of school and into the real world (Prizant et al., 2006a). To provide this type of ethical, efficient, and sustainable support, it is imperative for clinicians to understand emotional or energy regulation as a developmental construct and then to understand its relationship to challenging behaviors.
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Development Disorder 1 Author: World Health Organization - Psychosocial interventions that are effective in reducing core symptoms and improving adaptive skills and functioning are available, but they are very resource intensive. Increased evidence on affordable service delivery models and effective and scalable capacity-building approaches are required. Interventions mediated by parents and other non-specialist providers have the potential to significantly increase access to care.
  • What to Know About ADLs and IADLS 1 Author: VeryWell Health - Here is a basic guide to ADLS (Activities of Daily Living) and IADLS (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living).
  • Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioral Profile 0 Author: Elizabeth O'Nions 1, Essi Viding 2, Corina U Greven 3, Angelica Ronald 4, Francesca Happé 5 - This study is the first to use standardized measures to explore the behavioral profile of children receiving the increasingly used label PDA. It represents the first clear evidence that children fitting the PDA description display severe impairments across multiple domains. Comparisons between behavior in PDA and two putatively overlapping groups, ASD and CP/CU, revealed levels of peer problems and autistic-like traits in PDA comparable to ASD.
  • Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines For Children and Youth Ages 5–21 Years 2 Author: Cahill and Beisbier - Collaborate with families and caregivers and provide services in the natural context of the desired occupation. The evidence also supports group service models and models that include peer mediation; these models can promote participation across areas of occupation. Skills-based training and therapeutic practice in the context of valued occupations are recommended over isolated sensorimotor approaches. Technology, manualized programs, and sports activities can be effective but should be evaluated and matched to age, diagnosis, and outcomes as guided by the evidence. Activity- and Occupation-Based Interventions to Support Activities of Daily Living, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Play and Leisure, and Rest and Sleep -Parent, school, and community involvement should be supported throughout the course of intervention, and pediatric services should be provided in the natural context of the child’s or youth’s routine and environments. -Engagement in daily occupations should remain the central focus of goals and intervention. Practitioners should use manualized programs that have clear activity- and occupation-based strategies as opposed to those that are solely focused on performance skills or client factors. -Practitioners should collaborate with clients and caregivers to establish meaningful occupation-based and achievable goals and use intentional strategies to maintain a collaborative relationship throughout the therapy process. -Consistent caregiver training and instruction should be provided to promote carryover, and the power of the caregiver to effect change and support the child should be emphasized. -Practitioners should follow up with children, parents, and teachers and provide ongoing coaching and feedback on performance. They should provide opportunities for collaborative problem solving and model strategies for ongoing problem solving in the home and community as new challenges arise. -Skills-based interventions should incorporate peer, family member, and practitioner interaction. -Small-group service delivery methods provide an opportunity for increased motivation and modeling. -Practitioners should explore interactive technology interventions, especially with clients with ASD and ADHD. The use of technology can be coupled with skills training and other evidence-based interventions. -The evaluation and occupational profile should include consideration of the quality of rest and sleep. -Rest and sleep should be addressed to enhance health and well-being and increase performance and participation in meaningful occupations. Activity- and Occupation-Based Interventions to Improve Mental Health, Positive Behavior, and Social Participation -Activity- and occupation-based interventions should be implemented to address the mental health, positive behavior, and social participation of children and youth with or at risk for mental health concerns. -Practitioners should use group service delivery models when providing intervention to children and youth with or at risk for mental health concerns. -Sports activities should be used to develop social interaction skills. -Practitioners should incorporate meditation practices and blogging when attempting to foster positive feelings about self in children and youth. -Manualized yoga programs or less structured yoga games and poses should be used when addressing the mental health, positive behavior, and social participation of children and youth with or at risk for mental health concerns. Activity- and Occupation-Based Interventions to Improve Learning, Academic Achievement, and Successful Participation in School -Practitioners should incorporate peer support, such as peer tutoring and peer-mediated interventions, into occupational therapy interventions and provide services in typical school environments to promote social participation and academic performance. -Practitioners should emphasize the use of activity- and occupation-based approaches to improve learning, academic achievement, and successful participation in school. -Therapeutic practice should be favored over sensorimotor approaches for the development and remediation of handwriting and literacy skills and performance. -Weighted vests should be used with caution. Citation: Susan M. Cahill, Stephanie Beisbier; Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Children and Youth Ages 5–21 Years. Am J Occup Ther July/August 2020, Vol. 74(4), 7404397010p1–7404397010p48. doi: https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.744001
  • Changes In American Children's Time - 1997 to 2003 1 Author: Sandra L Hofferth - According to research by Sandra Hofferth, children between six and twelve years of age spend an average of just under three hours per week on housework (and almost 14 hours per week watching television!). While it’s important that children not have to shoulder adult-size responsibilities, pitching in by helping with household chores won’t hurt them and may even help them.
  • Variables Related to Successful School-Based Practice 1 Author: Case-Smith, Jane.  - Three themes were identified: "Finding the key" described a procedural reasoning process in which the participants searched for the underlying reasons for each student's behaviors and performance. "The whole child" emphasized the importance of the student's psychosocial core and described the therapist's use of interactive and conditional reasoning to form supportive relationships with their students. Because each participant valued the student's vision of a new self, she was able to help the student achieve new social roles and improved self-esteem. "Whose success is this?" told of the importance of a cohesive team, which included the parents, to the child's success. The child's achievement of important life goals and success as a student seemed to be the result of a team effort to which occupational therapy contributed.