Speech Therapy -> Articulation


Articulation, or sound production, exercises involve having the therapist model correct sounds and syllables in words and sentences for a child, often during play activities. Most professionals characterize a child with an articulation disorder as someone who has difficulty producing a few phonemes and the child’s errors may be linked to oral motor weakness and/or normal development.

Reference links

  • How Do Phonological Processes Differ Between Spanish and English? 1
    Author: Scott Prath - Description of how do Phonological Processes differ Between Spanish and English.
  • Articulation and Phonology 2
    Author: Katz Speech - It is important to know the difference between an articulation disorder and a phonological disorder. An articulation error is specific to a particular speech sound. A phonological disorder is a simplification of the sound system that results in patterned speech sound errors.
  • Nonword Repetition Tasks For Dynamic Assessment or Bilingual Evaluations 1
    Author: LeadersProject - Nonword Repetition Tasks (NWRT) can be used as a dynamic assessment as opposed to static assessment. NWRTs assess phonological working memory, speech perception, phonological assembly, and short term memory. These skills can have an impact on phonological awareness, word learning, and overall language acquisition. NWRTs are a useful tool to identify children/students with developmental language disorders because they are less culturally and linguistically biased than standardized language tests, as they do not call upon a child’s/student’s prior knowledge as many standardized tests do. Rather, NWRTs ask the child/student to repeat a series of nonwords of differing syllable length and complexity of sound combinations, thereby assessing linguistic abilities that have not been taught or learned previously. Nonword repetition tasks have been analyzed by number of consonants correct or number of items correct. There are different NWRTs for several languages, which contain phonemes specific for that particular language.
  • Speech Sound Errors. The Most Common Speech Errors a Child is Likely to Make. 1
    Author: David Newmonic - Speech Sound Errors: Speech production difficulties are the most common form of communication impairment school-based speech pathologists are likely to encounter when working in schools.
  • Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonology 1
    Author: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association - The scope of this page is speech sound disorders with no known cause—historically called articulation and phonological disorders—in preschool and school-age children (ages 3–21).
  • Bilingual (English/Spanish) Therapy Materials By Bilinguistics 1
    Author: Bilinguistics - Downloads and resources for providing bilingual therapy (Spanish/English)
  • Bilingual (Spanish/English) Evaluation Resources 1
    Author: Bilinguistics - Dozens of speech, language, fluency, and other evaluation resources for bilingual evaluations
  • Bilingual Language Development Video 1
    Author: Kathy Kohnert - YouTube Video on Bilingual Language Development by Kathy Kohnert
  • Bilingual Service Delivery 1
    Author: ASHA - Information and resources regarding bilingual service delivery by SLPs (from ASHA)
  • Multilingual, Multicultural, Bilingual Resource Link For SLPs 1
    Author: ASHA - Link includes ASHA resources and information related to evaluation and treatment of clients from linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds. Link includes ASHA resources to: Accent Modification Bilingual Service Delivery Collaborating With Interpreters, Transliterators, and Translators Cultural Competence Voice and Communication Services for Transgender and Gender Diverse Populations Dynamic Assessment Micro Course Cultural Competence Self Assessment Phonemic Inventories and Cultural and Linguistic Information Across Languages Collaboration With Interpreters: Securing Positive Outcomes Practical Assessment and Treatment Strategies for English Language Learners with Language Impairments Serving Clients From Diverse Backgrounds: Speech-Language Difference vs. Disorder Langu Continuing the Dialogue on Dialect: Positive Steps Toward Less Biased Assessments of Children Who Speak African American Englishage and Identity--Shifting Away from a Deficit Perspective on African American English Información en español
  • Language Difference vs Language Disorder: Assessing English Learners 1
    Author: Carol Westby and Kimberly Murphy - Video available Language Difference vs Language Disorder: Assessing English Learners Carol Westby, Bilingual and Multicultural Services, Albuquerque, NM Kimberly Murphy (Host), Old Dominion UniversityFollow Document Type Presentation Publication Date 5-20-2020 Abstract To a large extent, determining whether an English learner has a language/learning disability is a process of elimination. There are no tests that can definitely tell us whether the student has a language/learning disability. Inappropriately identifying an EL student as having a language/learning disability can result in stigmatization or reduced access to academic content, but waiting too long to identify a student who truly has a language/learning disability can be the beginning or the extension of a cycle of communicative, academic, and/or social failure. Assessment of EL learners requires collaboration between classroom teachers and speech/language pathologists. This session will cover (1) factors that complicate the assessment of English learners; (2) multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) and performance-based assessment; (3) process assessments, and (4) dynamic narrative assessment. Comments This professional development webinar was presented by Dr. Carol Westby for speech-language pathologists in Virginia. It was funded by the Virginia Department of Education and hosted by Dr. Kimberly Murphy, Old Dominion University.
  • Learning Two Languages: Bilingualism 1
    Author: ASHA - Information and resources for SLPs and parents of bilingual children
  • Spanish Phonemic Inventory 1
    Author: ASHA - Spanish Phonemic Inventory and Facts about Spanish Phonemes by ASHA
  • Articulation and Intelligibility Norms For Spanish and English 1
    Author: Bilinguistics - Articulation and Intelligibility Norms for Spanish and English by Bilinguistics
  • Articulation Vs. Phonology; Van Riper Vs. Hodson?; What’s a Busy Therapist To Do? 3
    Author: Keri Spielvogle, M.C.D., CCC-SLP - Sure, you’ve heard it all in graduate school, but what IS the difference between an articulation disorder and a phonology disorder? I know you knew it "once upon a time," but what do you do when you’re confronted with a child who has unintelligible speech? Do you treat it as an articulation or a phonology disorder? Hopefully, the following information will help you decide.
  • Articulation vs Phonological 1
    Author: Amy Speech & Language Therapy, Inc. - Articulation is the process by which sounds, syllables, and words are formed when your tongue, jaw, teeth, lips, and palate alter the air stream coming from the vocal folds. When an individual cannot produce or distort an age-expected sound/s, it draws attention away from the speaker’s message. Articulation disorders are motoric errors that can occur among people of any age; however, they are most common in children whose articulators have not developed properly.
  • How An SLP and OT Collaborate Long-Distance - The ASHA Leader BLOG 1
    Author: Stephanie Sigal, MA, CCC-SLP, Michelle Bonang, OTR/L - As speech-language pathologists, we all experience stories of working as an interdisciplinary team. In this story, co-treatment brought us together and keeps us in touch today. Our relationship naturally affected us professionally, but personally as well. This story shares some of my adventures—I’m Stephanie Sigal, an SLP in Manhattan, with my friend and colleague Michelle Bonang, an occupational therapist in Vermont. Together, we teach each other invaluable skills.
  • Red Flags For Speech-Language Impairment In Bilingual Children 1
    Author: Scott Prath On ASHA Wire - Red Flags for Speech-Language Impairment in Bilingual Children Differentiate disability from disorder by understanding common developmental milestones.
  • Speech Development In Spanish and English: What the Differences Mean to SLPs 1
    Author: Bilinguistics - Speech Development in Spanish and English: What the differences mean to SLPs by Bilinguistics
  • Children's Consonant Acquisition In 27 Languages: A Cross-Linguistic Review 2
    Author: Sharynne McLeod and Kathryn Crowe - The aim of this study was to provide a cross-linguistic review of acquisition of consonant phonemes to inform speech-language pathologists' expectations of children's developmental capacity by (a) identifying characteristics of studies of consonant acquisition, (b) describing general principles of consonant acquisition, and (c) providing case studies for English, Japanese, Korean, and Spanish. Children across the world acquire consonants at a young age. Five-year-old children have acquired most consonants within their ambient language; however, individual variability should be considered. https://www.theinformedslp.com/review/that-one-time-a-journal-article-on-speech-sounds-broke-the-slp-internet
  • The Complexity Approach to Phonological Treatment: How to Select Treatment Targets 3
    Author: Holly L. Storkel - There are a number of evidence-based treatments for preschool children with phonological disorders (Baker & McLeod, 2011). However, a recent survey by Brumbaugh and Smit (2013) suggests that speech-language pathologists are not equally familiar with all evidence-based treatment alternatives, particularly the complexity approach. The goal of this clinical tutorial is to provide coaching on the implementation of the complexity approach in clinical practice, focusing on treatment target selection. Incorporating the complexity approach into clinical practice will expand the range of evidence-based treatment options that clinicians can use when treating preschool children with phonological disorders.
  • Evaluation of Bilingual Children- Considerations 1
    Author: Alejandro E. Brice and Roanne G. Brice - An overview of considerations when evaluating bilingual (Spanish/English) children
  • Difference Between Articulation and Phonological Disorders 0
    Author: University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire - The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008) provides the following definitions.
  • Prosodic Patterns In Children’s Multisyllabic Word Productions 2
    Author: Margaret M. Kehoe - This paper reviews results from a series of studies that examined the influence of metrical and segmental effects on English-speaking children’s multisyllabic word productions. Three different approaches (prosodic structure, trochaic template, and perceptual salience) that have been proposed in the literature to account for children’s prosodic patterns are presented and evaluated. An analysis of children’s truncation or syllable deletion patterns revealed the following robust findings: (a) Stressed and word-final unstressed syllables are preserved more frequently than nonfinal unstressed syllables, (b) word-internal unstressed syllables with obstruent onsets are preserved more frequently than word-internal syllables with sonorant onsets, (c) unstressed syllables with non-reduced vowels are preserved more frequently than unstressed syllables with reduced vowels, and (d) right-sided stressed syllables are preserved more frequently than left-sided stressed syllables. An analysis of children’s stress patterns revealed that children made greater numbers of stress errors in target words with irregular stress. Clinical implications of these findings are presented and additional studies that have applied a metrical approach to clinical populations are described.
  • The Effect of Dose Frequency On Treatment Efficacy For Children With Speech Sound Disorders 1
    Author: Kristen Marie Giesbrecht - Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are urged to make evidence-based treatment decisions, but it is challenging to determine the appropriate intervention intensity for children with speech sound disorders (SSD) due to limited published information. This study is a single subject, multiple baseline design that compares the phonological changes of four preschool children (4;0 to 4;9) who received therapy either twice a week or four times a week for a total of twenty, 50-minute sessions.

Activity List(s)

Visual Schedule Cards

Related Disorder(s)

  • Childhood language disorders - Childhood Language Disorders include: Preschool Language Disorders, Learning Disabilities (Reading, Spelling, and Writing), and Selective Mutism.
  • Speech sound disorders - Speech sound disorders is an umbrella term referring to any difficulty or combination of difficulties with perception, motor production, or phonological representation of speech sounds and speech segments—including phonotactic rules governing permissible speech sound sequences in a language.
  • Childhood apraxia of speech - Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a disorder that involves difficulty in making speech sounds voluntarily and stringing these sounds together in the correct order to make words. A person with childhood apraxia of speech is not intellectually impaired. Speech pathologists assess, diagnose and support people with CAS.
  • Motor Speech Disorders - Dysarthria can be related to neurological damage, however it can be related to many other causes. Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder above all. A dysarthria diagnoses can come from a weakened Parkinson’s patient, a anatomy damaged TBI patient, a stroke patient with cranial nerve and strength deficits, etc).
  • Resonance disorders - Resonance disorders result from too much or too little nasal and/or oral sound energy in the speech signal. They can result from structural or functional (e.g., neurogenic) causes and occasionally are due to mislearning (e.g., articulation errors that can lead to the perception of a resonance disorder).


Goal Bank

  • Luke will decrease gliding errors over a 6 week therapy period. 0
  • Jane will increase speech intelligibility of 3 -4 word phrases from less than 50% in known contexts with known listeners to 80% in unfamiliar contexts with unfamiliar listeners. 0


Organizations who selected this major focus area as their top area of expertise.


Therapists who selected this major focus area as their top area of expertise.

  • Sarah Price

    Sarah Price

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I love working with kids with articulation disorders, expressive and receptive language skills an...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Breann Mitchell

    Breann Mitchell

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    Hi! My name is Breann Mitchell. I work for a private practice, Sidekick Therapy Partners, in Knox...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Shequria Williams

    Shequria Williams

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    Hello, My name is Shequria Williams, M.S., CCC-SLP. I graduated from the University of Alabama wi...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Lindsey Morton

    Lindsey Morton

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I have been working with Sidekick Therapy since 2009. I enjoy working with children that have spe...

  • Shawnry Baker

    Shawnry Baker

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I worked as a School SLP and at a private practice/clinic for 6 years when living in Georgia. Sin...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Danielle Rich

    Danielle Rich

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I love working with school age children with speech and language disorders. Collaborating with te...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Kacey Hammonds

    Kacey Hammonds

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I specialize in treating speech and language disorders in the school setting.

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Claire Roper

    Claire Roper

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I treat articulation and language disorders at Mary Blount Elementary. I am also the District Coo...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Rachel Brewer

    Rachel Brewer

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    Hi! I'm Rachel. I work as an SLP at Happy Valley Elementary in Carter County. I love working with...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Sarah King

    Sarah King

    Therapist CCC-SLP
    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Sara Boggs

    Sara Boggs

    Therapist Scheduling Operations Management CCC-SLP

    Director of Case Management and Scheduling. CCC-SLP that has primarily worked in the schools.

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Jennifer Henderson

    Jennifer Henderson

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I am a Speech Language Pathologist with 13+ years of clinical experience. I enjoy working with th...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Krista-Beth Luther

    Krista-Beth Luther

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I specialize in working with children who have apraxia of speech , voice disorders, and articulat...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Natalie Keller

    Natalie Keller

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I specialize in receptive and expressive language skills, including cognition, and articulation/p...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Christina Mitchell

    Christina Mitchell

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I have been a practicing speech-language pathologist for over ten years. I have worked in early i...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Chezlie Davis

    Chezlie Davis

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I love working with all clients to improve their goals. I truly have a passion for helping others...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Heidi Wheeler

    Heidi Wheeler

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I have been a Speech-Language Pathologist for 3, going on 4, years now. I have had experience wit...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Abby Clarke

    Abby Clarke

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    Hi! My name is Abby. My favorite population to work with is elementary aged students. I specializ...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Margie Busby

    Margie Busby

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    “If all my possessions were taken from me with one exception, I would choose to keep the power of...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Nancy Milbourne

    Nancy Milbourne

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I especially love working with students with articulation and phonology challenges, and I love th...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners