Speech Therapy -> Execution and Speech Motor Planning

Execution and Speech Motor Planning

The ability to plan out in the brain the sounds needed to produce words, figure out what muscles need to move and in what order and then say them correctly; children with apraxia have difficulty putting sounds together to form words (e.g., they can say “uh” and “p” separately, but have difficulty planning the order and movement of muscles to say the word “up”).

Reference links

  • Bilingual Service Delivery 1
    www.asha.org
    Author: ASHA - Information and resources regarding bilingual service delivery by SLPs (from ASHA)
  • Echolalia and Its Role In Gestalt Language Acquisition 0
    www.asha.org
    Author: ASHA / Practice Portal / Clinical Topics / Autism Spectrum Disorder / - This view of gestalt language acquisition and the role of echolalia in individuals with ASD is reflected in assessment procedures (e.g., assessing communicative function of echolalia) and treatment approaches to language intervention (see e.g., Blanc, 2012). Gestalt language acquisitionis a style of language development with predictable stages that begins with production of multi-word “gestalt forms” and ends with production of novel utterances. At first, children produce “chunks” or “gestalt form” (e.g., echolalic utterances), without distinction between individual words and without appreciation for internal syntactic structure. As children understand more about syntax and syntactic rules, they can analyze (break down) these “gestalt forms” and begin to recombine segments and words into spontaneous forms. Eventually, the child is able to formulate creative, spontaneous utterances for communication purposes.
  • Learning Two Languages: Bilingualism 1
    www.asha.org
    Author: ASHA - Information and resources for SLPs and parents of bilingual children
  • Bilingual (Spanish/English) Evaluation Resources 1
    bilinguistics.com
    Author: Bilinguistics - Dozens of speech, language, fluency, and other evaluation resources for bilingual evaluations
  • Nurturing Care For Early Childhood Development 1
    www.who.int
    Author: World Health Organization - Your loving care as a parent is what a child needs to be healthy, wellnourished and safe. • Communicate early and often, starting even before your baby is born. It will help you build a warm and loving relationship. • Make time to play with your child and engage them in your daily chores. You will help your child to learn, be happy and thrive. • Remember that feeding times are periods of learning and love – talk to your child while feeding and make eye-to-eye contact. • If you feel sad and unable to respond joyfully to your child, seek help from your health care provider
  • Leveling Up Regulatory Support Through Community Collaboration 1
    pubs.asha.org
    Author: Amy C. Laurenta and Jacquelyn Fede - While behavioral intervention methodologies and societal expectations for masking remain prevalent, in recent years, there has been a greater emphasis placed on understanding the underlying factors contributing to problematic and challenging behaviors. Furthermore, there has been greater recognition of the need to address those underlying factors as the primary areas to target for effective intervention that can actually help autistic individuals navigate their environments in school and as they transition out of school and into the real world (Prizant et al., 2006a). To provide this type of ethical, efficient, and sustainable support, it is imperative for clinicians to understand emotional or energy regulation as a developmental construct and then to understand its relationship to challenging behaviors.
  • The Natural Language Acquisition Guide: Echolalia is All About Gestalt Language Development 0
    www.meaningfulspeech.com
    Author: Marge Blanc, M.A. CCC-SLP Illustrated By Jon G. Lyon - 'Echolalic’/gestalt comments, phrases, and others like them are vitally important because they make up the first, crucial stage of language development, real language development, for children and young adults who are ‘echolalic’ — more accurately, gestalt language processors. These gestalt language processors develop language naturally: starting with whole chunks of language: some short, some long — some from media, some from songs, and plenty from the other people in their lives, including you! From now on, you will never see ‘echolalia’ the same way! It is gestalt language processing (GLP), and gestalt language processors use ‘echolalia’ (gestalts) in natural language development!
  • How An SLP and OT Collaborate Long-Distance - The ASHA Leader BLOG 1
    leader.pubs.asha.org
    Author: Stephanie Sigal, MA, CCC-SLP, Michelle Bonang, OTR/L - As speech-language pathologists, we all experience stories of working as an interdisciplinary team. In this story, co-treatment brought us together and keeps us in touch today. Our relationship naturally affected us professionally, but personally as well. This story shares some of my adventures—I’m Stephanie Sigal, an SLP in Manhattan, with my friend and colleague Michelle Bonang, an occupational therapist in Vermont. Together, we teach each other invaluable skills.
  • Medicare Guidelines For Group Therapy 1
    www.asha.org
    Author: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) - Medicare Benefit Policy Manual, Chapter 15 230-Practice of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech-Language Pathology A. Group Therapy Services. Contractors pay for outpatient physical therapy services (which includes outpatient speech-language pathology services) and outpatient occupational therapy services provided simultaneously to two or more individuals by a practitioner as group therapy services (97150). The individuals can be, but need not be, performing the same activity. The physician or therapist involved in group therapy services must be in constant attendance, but one-on-one patient contact is not required. The Medicare Benefit Policy Manual does not establish a specific restriction on the use of group therapy, particularly as it pertains to the size of the group. In the absence of such guidance, speech-language pathologists must refer to the LCD developed by their MAC to determine any such restrictions. LCDs may be accessed through the Medicare Coverage Database.
  • The Rehab Therapist’s Guide to Co-Treatment Under Medicare - Recommended Co-Treatment Guidelines Based On CMS’s Regulations. 1
    www.webpt.com
    Author: Brooke Andrus, Ryan Giebel PT, DPT, OCS, CMTPT/DN - There is one important point to keep in mind, courtesy of joint guidelines for co-treatment created by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), and the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA): Therapists billing under either Part A or Part B should only provide co-treatment if the purpose for such treatment is to enhance the quality of care the patient receives. Practitioners should never co-treat simply because it is logistically more convenient to do so. If the therapists believe co-treatment is the best way to help the patient progress toward his or her goals, they must clearly document that rationale within their notes. Finally, therapists should not provide therapy in more than two disciplines during a single session Medicare Part A Co-Treatment Rules If, during a single treatment session, a patient receives therapy from two different practitioners working in two different disciplines (e.g., PT and OT), both therapists can bill for the entire treatment session separately. Each treating therapist, however, must ensure the length of time billed as co-treatment is equal in each other’s accounts. Medicare Part B Co-Treatment Rules If two therapists provide treatment—whether that treatment includes the same or different services—to a single patient at the same time, neither therapist can bill separately for the full session.
  • Therapy Co-Treatment Scenarios and Documentation - Harmony Healthcare International (HHI) Blog 1
    www.harmony-healthcare.com
    Author: Kris Mastrangelo, OTR/L, LNHA, MBA - PT and OT appear to be a natural pairing because of the treatment crossover in neuromuscular and orthopedic deficit remediation. However, patients also benefit from co-treatments with SLP and OT, for interventions such as self feeding. During these types of therapeutic collaborations, OT can address postural alignment, positioning, adaptive equipment, and the motor sequence of self feeding, while the SLP addresses bolus size, rate of presentation, and any specific strategies identified to reduce the risk of aspiration; such as chin tuck swallow, or multiple swallows per bolus. Examples of appropriate goals in support of co-treatment follow: Patient will demonstrate self feeding skills with setup assistance x 4/5 consecutive sessions x 14 days, while applying swallow safety strategies with minimal verbal cueing. Patient will demonstrate lower body dressing skills with minimum assist while maintaining standing balance in order to complete the task safely in preparation for return to ALF.

Activity List(s)

Visual Schedule Cards

Related Disorder(s)

  • Childhood apraxia of speech - Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a disorder that involves difficulty in making speech sounds voluntarily and stringing these sounds together in the correct order to make words. A person with childhood apraxia of speech is not intellectually impaired. Speech pathologists assess, diagnose and support people with CAS.
  • Motor Speech Disorders - Dysarthria can be related to neurological damage, however it can be related to many other causes. Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder above all. A dysarthria diagnoses can come from a weakened Parkinson’s patient, a anatomy damaged TBI patient, a stroke patient with cranial nerve and strength deficits, etc).
  • Speech sound disorders - Speech sound disorders is an umbrella term referring to any difficulty or combination of difficulties with perception, motor production, or phonological representation of speech sounds and speech segments—including phonotactic rules governing permissible speech sound sequences in a language.
  • Neurological Conditions - Types of neurological conditions may include: Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementias, Brain Cancer, Epilepsy and Other Seizure Disorders, Mental Disorders, Parkinson’s and Other Movement Disorders, and Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA).

Assessments

Therapists

Therapists who selected this major focus area as their top area of expertise.

  • Lexie Gregory

    Lexie Gregory

    Full-time Therapist CCC-SLP

    I love speech sound disorders and specialize in apraxia! I am certified in PROMPT training and re...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners