Speech Therapy -> Expressive Language

Skilled interventions

  • Analogical Reasoning Technique

    Analogical Reasoning Technique is an instructional strategy where the SLP teaches the patient how to take existing knowledge from one situation and apply it to a novel situation.

    Method: Sessions focus on the processes of encoding, inferring, mapping, and applying an analogy set.

    Example: (A) Picture of a horse, (B) picture of a foal, (C) picture of a cow and (D) picture of a calf.
    Encoding: Translation of each term of the problem into a list of attributes that could be useful for solution.
    Inferring: Relationship is established between the “A” and “B” terms/situations of the first pairing (horse and foal).
    Mapping: Use the relationship between the first pair of words/situation to identify a similar relationship for the second pair.
    Applying: the problem is completed by picking an answer (D) that has the same relationship to (C) as was found in the first half of the problem (A:B)
    (Masterson & Perrey, 1999).

  • Communicative Reading Strategies (CRS)

    Communicative Reading Strategies (CRS) is a meaning-based feedback strategy that emphasizes the process and purpose of reading which improves both language and reading abilities. This intervention approach is for school-age children who exhibit poor language and reading abilities. Meaning-based feedback during oral reading makes the reader simultaneously apply and integrate oral and written language knowledge. This makes the reader become an active conversational participate who reconstructs the author’s message. For beginning readers or poor readers, creating meaning from the text is facilitated through feedback strategies that include questions, visual and verbal cues, explanations, and other comments that help the reader understand the printed text.

    Method: In CRS the SLP uses an interactive conversation style by having the patient read small portions of text, asking/answer questions during and after reading, commenting, summarizing, reacting to events and retelling what was read. Prior to reading stories patients are asked to look at the pictures and make predictions about the story. The patient then reads the story while the SLP provides cues and feedback which include:

    1. Preparatory set: “This is going to tell us who is in the story.”
    2. Summarization: “So what did they do when they couldn’t find their key?”
    3. Explanation: “So running, in this sentence, meant water that was moving.”
    4. Pronoun Referencing: “He, in the story is really John.” 5. Cohesive Ties: “They didn’t want to go in because………”

    (Crowe, 2003)

  • Conversational-Recasting Language Intervention

    Conversational-Recasting Language Intervention technique is used in a clinician structured setting where following a patient’s production that omits the target, the SLP gives a “growth recast” that includes the target incorporated in a reply and recasts basic semantic information from the patient’s utterance.

    Example: Target: present progressive (verb+ing). Session is set up and child says “Car going” SLP growth recast: “yes, the car is going”. Child says “cars going” SLP would say “Yes, the cars are going” (Camarata, et al 1994).

  • Direct Language Treatment Approach

    This is a clinician-directed approach where the SLP selects specific language targets, designs a treatment environment, and implements the treatment. The SLP uses specific stimuli including modeling, prompting, and manual guidance; uses explicit reinforcement contingencies, expects the child to imitate or produce specific targets upon stimulation and moves through a planned sequence of treatment stages (Hedge 2008).

  • Environmental Language Intervention Strategy (ELIS)

    Environmental Language Intervention Strategy (ELIS) is an intervention method for preschool children in which the SLP employs structured, direct treatment strategies using a semantic approach to teaching grammar.

    Method: Establish baselines of selected target language structures. Train parents to record responses; administer treatment program, and behavioral contingencies.

    Treatment session has 3 phases:
    1. Imitation: First 10-15 minutes of session is imitative productions. Present a nonlinguistic stimuli (throw a ball) and then present a linguistic stimuli (Say, throw ball).
    2. Conversation: Next 10 to 15 minutes is conversational speech: present the same nonlinguistic stimuli and ask a question (What am I doing?) Model if necessary (Say, throw ball. What am I doing?)
    3. Play: Final 10 to 15 minutes is play activity during which the production of the target behavior is reinforced. Let the child play with the material used in imitation and conversation. Evoke responses from the child that are relevant to the child’s actions. Give positive rein forcers as tokens and verbal praise for correct responses. Give corrective feedback for incorrect productions. Ask parent to conduct at home 3 weekly sessions similar to yours.

    Each session, review the records of home training and suggest modification (Hegde, 2008; MacDonald, et al. 1974).

  • Interactive Language Development Teaching

    Interactive Language Development Teaching is a directed language treatment approach to teach syntactic structures. The SLP reads a story to the child and then asks a series of questions designed to evoke specific language structures from the child.

    1. Select a story that targets language concepts (camping, cooking) and specific language responses (auxiliary is or preposition on).
    2. Read the story to the child.
    3. Ask questions frequently as you tell the story to evoke specific response (Daddy said a bear is coming [part of the story]. What did Daddy say? [question to evoke the response bear is coming] (Lee, et al, 1975).

  • Literate Narrative Intervention (LNI)

    Literate Narrative Intervention (LNI) is an interactive approach that targets the patient’s production of story grammars through sequenced steps that gradually withdraw support so that the patient can independently tell a story specific.

    Method: Pre-intervention narrative:

    1. Patient looks at a simple picture that does not depict an obvious initiating event and is asked to tell the best story they can. The story is recorded). SLP models storytelling using pictures in a book (SLP does not read the story; instead SLP tells the story emphasizing macro/microstructure).
    2. SLP and patient co-tell the story using pictures in a book and appropriate story grammar icons.
    3. Patient re-tells the story with SLP support (focused stimulation, vertical structuring and expansion, repetition, cloze procedures, and inferential/factual questions) as needed. Pictures of a book are present to prompt story retelling, but story grammar icons are not.
    4. SLP and patient co-tell a story using a single complex scene picture and story grammar icons.
    5. Patient retells the story while SLP uses support (listed in step 3) as needed. A single complex-scene picture is present to prompt story retelling, but story grammar icons are not.
    6. SLP and patient look at same picture used to elicit the pre-intervention narrative while listening to the recorded narrative produced by the patient. SLP places icon on table when corresponding story grammar element is produced in the recorded narrative. After listening to the story, SLP and patient identify missing story grammar elements and co-tell the story using the same single simple-scene picture, story grammar icons, and support listed in step 3.
    7. Patient retells the story while clinician uses support as needed. A single simple-scene picture is present to prompt story retelling, but story grammar icons are not.
    8. Patient makes up a story using story grammar icons with simultaneous picture prompts drawn by the SLP on separate sticky notes as participant tells a story. SLP uses support as needed.
    9. Patient retells the story using the pictures on the sticky notes but without story grammar icons. SLP use minimal support.
    10. Patient retells the story without using sticky notes or story grammar prompts. SLP uses minimal support (Petersen, et al., 2010).

  • Milieu Language Teaching Procedure (MLT)

    Milieu Language Teaching Procedure: This is a hybrid intervention approach which combines methods from both child-centered and clinical-directed interventions. SLP uses child centered play and routines to elicit the child’s need to use utterances that contain pre-selected grammatical targets. The child’s current focus of attention or communicative request provides the context and timing for the SLP to prompt an utterance that contains a language structure that the child does not use often or consistently. Incidental teaching method and Mand-model are two variations of MLT (Warren, 1991, Yoder, et al, 2011, Paul, 2001).

    Incidental Teaching Method Clinician arranges therapy situations so that the child is likely to initiate a conversational exchange (place attractive toys on a shelf the child can see but cannot reach; arrange desirable food items). The clinician stays close to the materials and gives nonverbal cues to speak by having focused attention on the child and a questioning look. Child selects the topic of conversation by making some kind of request, such as gesturing or looking toward the desired item. The clinician gives an elaboration of the child’s response (e.g. “What do you want?”) or models an elaboration (“You want that ball! What do you want?”); if the child responds appropriately to the prompt, praise is provided and the communicative goal is achieved. If not, one more attempt should be made. If this also fails, the child still gets what he or she wanted.

    Mand-Model: This is an extension to incidental teaching method. The clinician uses attractive stimulus materials, designs a naturalistic interactive situation, but the clinician does not need to wait for the child to initiate communication. Joint clinician-child attention to a particular material is set and then the clinician “mands” (requests) a response from the child with a stimulus, such as “Tell me what that is.” or “Tell me what you want.” If the child gives no or a very limited response, the clinician models the complete, correct response "I want ball". If the child does not imitate the entire modeled sentence, the clinician prompts (“Tell me the whole sentence”). The child is praised for imitating or for responding correctly and is given the item he or she wanted.

  • Modeling Plus Evoked Production Intervention

    Modeling Plus Evoked Production Intervention is an interactive approach that uses focused models of targeted forms with intermittent opportunities for the patient to produce the form and receive feedback regarding the correctness of the production.

    Method: Sessions must first have “quiet practice” where the patient listens to focused models of the target form and the child is not required to respond. Activities can include storytelling with manipulatable figures, art construction activities, food preparation, and puppet play. The puppet or doll performs the actions while the SLP describes the activity. Tasks are structured so that the patient’s productions are not imitations of the SLP’s productions but are independently formulated utterances that contain the target form (Weismer & Murray-Branch, 1989).

  • Pictography Representational Strategy

    Pictography representational strategy is a language intervention approach that facilitates the patient’s ability to produce oral narratives that targets time sequences, increased length and quality of the story content. Method: SLP describes to patient “picture writing” or “stick writing” as a method for representing a story. The stick writing must have at least 3 scenes (beginning, middle, and end) or can have as many as 12 scenes to represent the story. Language goals can be targeted within the context of a temporal and visual event representation (Ukrainetz, 1998).

  • Priming

    Semantic Priming: In semantic priming, the prime and the target are from the same semantic category and share features. For example, the word dog is a semantic prime for wolf, because the two are both similar animals. Semantic priming is theorized to work because of spreading neural networks. When a person thinks of one item in a category, similar items are stimulated by the brain. Even if they are not words, morphemes can prime for complete words that include them. An example of this would be that the morpheme 'psych' can prime for the word 'psychology'.

    Lexical Priming: In lexical priming the patient is taught to expect words to be in the company of other words [their collocations] and also expect words to appear in certain grammatical situations [their grammatical colligations] and in certain positions in text and discourse [their textual colligations]. Thus the collocation 'by the way' is primed for us to appear, most of the time, at the beginning of a statement.

    Example: Picture of an elderly man walking with a cane. Prime: “this man likes to go walking” Target: walking stick/cane. Walking is a lexical prime for walking stick because we have “learned” or been primed that you can expect to see his two words together. Walking is also a semantic prime for both walking stick and cane.

  • Scaffolding Techniques

    Scaffolding techniques are a collection of instructional procedures the SLP uses to elicit and support the patient’s production of a desired language target and then gradually shifts responsibility to the patient. Scaffolding techniques include modeling, print reference, binary choice, cloze procedure, syntactic and semantic expansion, and comprehension questions. (Bradshaw, et al, 1998; Lovelace & Stewart, 2007; Gillum, et al, 2003; Liboriron & Soto, 2006).

    1. Modeling: SLP produces a target behavior for the patient to imitate (Weismer & Murray-Brank, 1989)
    2. Print Reference: SLP uses an illustration to elicit targeted response from patient (Lovelace & Stewart, 2007).
    3. Binary Choice: SLP offers the patient two choices of responses (Crystal, et al, 1976)
    4. Cloze Procedure: SLP models parts of an utterance and then pauses for the patient to produce words and/or phrases to complete the utterances (Bradshaw, et al, 1998).
    5. Syntactic and Semantic Expansion: SLP expands the patient’s incomplete or telegraphic statements into grammatically more complete productions by adding grammar and vocabulary targets (Hubbell, 1977; Bradshaw, et al, 1998; Gillum, et al, 2003).
    6. Comprehension Questions: SLP asks the patient a question targeting an appropriate level of complexity (Leonard & Deevy, 2004)

  • Semantic Mapping Technique

    Semantic Mapping technique is a language intervention approach that uses schematic diagrams of critical information and related ideas, consisting of words, phrases, or pictures in networks that emphasize the relationship among concepts. Method: Using a visual thinking tool to relay knowledge, both prior and learned, about vocabulary word and/or story information:

    1. SLP selects the topic.
    2. Brainstorm words or topics related to the subject.
    3. Write down all of the words generated during the discussion categorize and label the words.
    4. Categorize the words.
    5. Provide reasoning for category placement and/or deletion of words/ideas written down.
    6. Group words based on meaningful associations. Semantic mapping can be used for pre-reading preparation, post reading review, writing and vocabulary development.

    (Pehrsson & Denner, 1988)

Reference links

  • Effects of Parents' Mealtime Conversation Techniques For Preschool Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Listening and Spoken Language 2
    Author: Elaine R. Smolen, Ye Wang, Maria C. Hartman, and Young-Sun Lee - Parents of preschoolers with hearing loss may benefit from specific coaching to elicit language and introduce new vocabulary during home routines. These techniques may help develop their children's receptive language.
  • Nurturing Care For Early Childhood Development 1
    Author: World Health Organization - Your loving care as a parent is what a child needs to be healthy, wellnourished and safe. • Communicate early and often, starting even before your baby is born. It will help you build a warm and loving relationship. • Make time to play with your child and engage them in your daily chores. You will help your child to learn, be happy and thrive. • Remember that feeding times are periods of learning and love – talk to your child while feeding and make eye-to-eye contact. • If you feel sad and unable to respond joyfully to your child, seek help from your health care provider
  • Bilingual Service Delivery 1
    Author: ASHA - Information and resources regarding bilingual service delivery by SLPs (from ASHA)
  • Evaluation of Bilingual Children- Considerations 1
    Author: Alejandro E. Brice and Roanne G. Brice - An overview of considerations when evaluating bilingual (Spanish/English) children
  • Is Speech and Language Therapy Effective For Children With Speech/language Impairment? A Report of An RCT 0
    Author: Jan Broomfield & Barbara Dodd - A randomized controlled trial was conducted of a whole-service cohort of children referred to the Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Service of Middlesbrough Primary Care Trust between January 1999 and April 2000. The 730 children involved, aged up to 16 years, were diagnosed with primary speech and/or language impairment in the absence of any learning, physical or sensory difficulty. Aims: The study considered outcomes of treatment versus no treatment. Treatment involved clinic-based interventions, provided according to local departmental criteria and care pathways, averaging 5.5 h (range 0-24 h) of contact during the 6-month period immediately following initial assessment. Assessments occurred within 8 weeks of referral and intervention began immediately thereafter. Treatment was significantly more effective than no treatment, over 6 months, both overall (p < 0.001) and for each of the three diagnostic categories (comprehension, expression and speech, each p < 0.001). An average of 6 h of speech and language therapy in a 6-month period can produce significant improvement in performance, and it has been shown to be more effective than no treatment over the same 6-month period for children with primary speech and/or language impairment.
  • Expressive Language (Using Words and Language) 1
    Author: Kid Sense Child Development - Expressive language is the use of words, sentences, gestures and writing to convey meaning and messages to others. Expressive language skills include being able to label objects in the environment, describe actions and events, put words together in sentences, use grammar correctly (e.g. “I had a drink” not “Me drinked”), retell a story, answer questions and write short story.
  • Leveling Up Regulatory Support Through Community Collaboration 1
    Author: Amy C. Laurenta and Jacquelyn Fede - While behavioral intervention methodologies and societal expectations for masking remain prevalent, in recent years, there has been a greater emphasis placed on understanding the underlying factors contributing to problematic and challenging behaviors. Furthermore, there has been greater recognition of the need to address those underlying factors as the primary areas to target for effective intervention that can actually help autistic individuals navigate their environments in school and as they transition out of school and into the real world (Prizant et al., 2006a). To provide this type of ethical, efficient, and sustainable support, it is imperative for clinicians to understand emotional or energy regulation as a developmental construct and then to understand its relationship to challenging behaviors.
  • Nurturing Care For Early Childhood Development 1
    Author: World Health Organization - Your loving care as a parent is what a child needs to be healthy, wellnourished and safe. • Communicate early and often, starting even before your baby is born. It will help you build a warm and loving relationship. • Make time to play with your child and engage them in your daily chores. You will help your child to learn, be happy and thrive. • Remember that feeding times are periods of learning and love – talk to your child while feeding and make eye to eye contact. • If you feel sad and unable to respond joyfully to your child, seek help from your health care provider.
  • Medicare Guidelines For Group Therapy 1
    Author: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) - Medicare Benefit Policy Manual, Chapter 15 230-Practice of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech-Language Pathology A. Group Therapy Services. Contractors pay for outpatient physical therapy services (which includes outpatient speech-language pathology services) and outpatient occupational therapy services provided simultaneously to two or more individuals by a practitioner as group therapy services (97150). The individuals can be, but need not be, performing the same activity. The physician or therapist involved in group therapy services must be in constant attendance, but one-on-one patient contact is not required. The Medicare Benefit Policy Manual does not establish a specific restriction on the use of group therapy, particularly as it pertains to the size of the group. In the absence of such guidance, speech-language pathologists must refer to the LCD developed by their MAC to determine any such restrictions. LCDs may be accessed through the Medicare Coverage Database.
  • Children With Slow Expressive Language Development - What Is the Forecast For School Achievement? 0
    Author: Marilyn A Nippold & Ilsa Schwarz - Rhea Paul’s provocative article, entitled “Clinical Implications of the Natural History of Slow Expressive Language Development,” is a significant contribution to the literature on late-talking children. It expands the database in this area, stimulates thought about critical issues of language assessment and intervention, and raises important topics for future research. Although our reaction to the article is generally favorable, some concerns arise as we consider the implications and recommendations. Because Paul’s article has the potential to influence clinical practice and public policy in speechlanguage pathology, we feel it is important to explicate our concerns.
  • Multilingual, Multicultural, Bilingual Resource Link For SLPs 1
    Author: ASHA - Link includes ASHA resources and information related to evaluation and treatment of clients from linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds. Link includes ASHA resources to: Accent Modification Bilingual Service Delivery Collaborating With Interpreters, Transliterators, and Translators Cultural Competence Voice and Communication Services for Transgender and Gender Diverse Populations Dynamic Assessment Micro Course Cultural Competence Self Assessment Phonemic Inventories and Cultural and Linguistic Information Across Languages Collaboration With Interpreters: Securing Positive Outcomes Practical Assessment and Treatment Strategies for English Language Learners with Language Impairments Serving Clients From Diverse Backgrounds: Speech-Language Difference vs. Disorder Langu Continuing the Dialogue on Dialect: Positive Steps Toward Less Biased Assessments of Children Who Speak African American Englishage and Identity--Shifting Away from a Deficit Perspective on African American English Información en español
  • Receptive Language Vs. Expressive Language 1
    Author: NAPA Center - Put simply, receptive language generally refers to listening while expressive language refers to talking. But there's more to it, as we share in this blog!
  • The Natural Language Acquisition Guide: Echolalia is All About Gestalt Language Development 0
    Author: Marge Blanc, M.A. CCC-SLP Illustrated By Jon G. Lyon - 'Echolalic’/gestalt comments, phrases, and others like them are vitally important because they make up the first, crucial stage of language development, real language development, for children and young adults who are ‘echolalic’ — more accurately, gestalt language processors. These gestalt language processors develop language naturally: starting with whole chunks of language: some short, some long — some from media, some from songs, and plenty from the other people in their lives, including you! From now on, you will never see ‘echolalia’ the same way! It is gestalt language processing (GLP), and gestalt language processors use ‘echolalia’ (gestalts) in natural language development!
  • Bilingual Language Development Video 1
    Author: Kathy Kohnert - YouTube Video on Bilingual Language Development by Kathy Kohnert
  • The Rehab Therapist’s Guide to Co-Treatment Under Medicare - Recommended Co-Treatment Guidelines Based On CMS’s Regulations. 1
    Author: Brooke Andrus, Ryan Giebel PT, DPT, OCS, CMTPT/DN - There is one important point to keep in mind, courtesy of joint guidelines for co-treatment created by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), and the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA): Therapists billing under either Part A or Part B should only provide co-treatment if the purpose for such treatment is to enhance the quality of care the patient receives. Practitioners should never co-treat simply because it is logistically more convenient to do so. If the therapists believe co-treatment is the best way to help the patient progress toward his or her goals, they must clearly document that rationale within their notes. Finally, therapists should not provide therapy in more than two disciplines during a single session Medicare Part A Co-Treatment Rules If, during a single treatment session, a patient receives therapy from two different practitioners working in two different disciplines (e.g., PT and OT), both therapists can bill for the entire treatment session separately. Each treating therapist, however, must ensure the length of time billed as co-treatment is equal in each other’s accounts. Medicare Part B Co-Treatment Rules If two therapists provide treatment—whether that treatment includes the same or different services—to a single patient at the same time, neither therapist can bill separately for the full session.
  • Sight Word Instruction For Students With Autism: An Evaluation of the Evidence Base 2
    Author: Janet E. Spector - This review investigates the effect of sight word instruction on reading skills in students on the autism spectrum.
  • The Link Between Language and Spelling: What Speech-Language Pathologists and Teachers Need to Know 3
    Author: Carol Moxam - SLPs have expertise in the key speech and language domains such as phonology, morphology, and semantics and are therefore well placed to play an important role in supporting learners in making links between these domains in relation to spelling development and intervention.
  • Efficacy of Auditory-Verbal Therapy In Children With Hearing Impairment: A Systematic Review From 1993 to 2015 2
    Author: Ramesh Kaipa and Michelle L. Danser - This systematic review investigates the effects of auditory-verbal therapy (AVT) on receptive and expressive language development, auditory and speech perception, and "mainstreaming" in children, 2-months-old to 17-years-old, with hearing loss.
  • Milestone Moments 1
    Author: Centers For Disease Control and Prevention - These developmental milestones show what most children (75% or more) can do by each age. Subject matter experts selected these milestones based on available data and expert consensus.
  • Scope of Occupational Therapy Services For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder Across the Life Course 1
    Author: Copyright © 2015 By the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2015, Vol. 69(Supplement_3), 6913410054p1–6913410054p12. - Occupational Therapy practitioners work collaboratively with individuals on the autism spectrum, their families, OTHER PROFESSIONALS, organizations, and community members in multiple contexts to advocate for and provide a range of needed resources and services that support individuals' ability to participate fully in life (Case-Smith & Ambersman, 2008; Kuhaneck, Madonna, Novak, & Pearson, 2015; Tanner Hand, O'Toole, & Lane, 2015; Watling & Hauer, 2015a; Weaver, 2015). According to a study conducted by the Interactive Autism Network (2011), occupational therapy ranks second to speech-language pathology as the most frequently provided service for individuals with autism throughout the United States.
  • Your Child’s Early Development is a Journey 1
    Author: Centers For Disease Control and Prevention - Skills such as taking the first step, smiling for the first time, and waving “bye-bye” are called developmental milestones. Children reach milestones in how they play, learn, speak, act, and move. Click on the age of your child to see the milestones:
  • Joint Guidelines For Therapy Co-Treatment Under Medicare 1
    Author: The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) - Co-treatment may be appropriate when practitioners from different professional disciplines can effectively address their treatment goals while the patient is engaged in a single therapy session. For example, a patient may address cognitive goals for sequencing as part of a speech-language pathology (SLP) treatment session while the physical therapist (PT) is training the patient to use a wheelchair. Or a patient may address ADL goals for increasing independence as part of an occupational therapy (OT) treatment session while the PT addresses balance retraining with the patient to increase independence with mobility. Co-treatment is appropriate when coordination between the two disciplines will benefit the patient, not simply for scheduling convenience. Documentation should clearly indicate the rationale for co-treatment and state the goals that will be addressed through this method of intervention. Co-treatment sessions should be documented as such by each practitioner, stating which goals were addressed and the progress made. Co-treatment should be limited to two disciplines providing interventions during one treatment session.
  • Red Flags For Speech-Language Impairment In Bilingual Children 1
    Author: Scott Prath On ASHA Wire - Red Flags for Speech-Language Impairment in Bilingual Children Differentiate disability from disorder by understanding common developmental milestones.
  • Learning Two Languages: Bilingualism 1
    Author: ASHA - Information and resources for SLPs and parents of bilingual children
  • Increasing Adolescents’ Depth of Understanding of Cross-Curriculum Words: An Intervention Study 2
    Author: Sarah Spencer, Judy Clegg, Hilary Lowe, and Joy Stackhouse - Cross-curriculum words are not consistently understood by adolescents at risk of low educational attainment within a low socio-economic context. A 10-week intervention programme resulted in some increases to the depth of knowledge of targeted cross-curriculum words. https://www.theinformedslp.com/review/vocabulary-intervention-for-at-risk-adolescents
  • Bilingual (English/Spanish) Therapy Materials By Bilinguistics 1
    Author: Bilinguistics - Downloads and resources for providing bilingual therapy (Spanish/English)
  • Bilingual (English/Spanish) Language Milestones From Bilinguistics 2
    Author: Bilinguistics - PDF of language milestones for bilingual (English/Spanish) children
  • Language Difference vs Language Disorder: Assessing English Learners 1
    Author: Carol Westby and Kimberly Murphy - Video available Language Difference vs Language Disorder: Assessing English Learners Carol Westby, Bilingual and Multicultural Services, Albuquerque, NM Kimberly Murphy (Host), Old Dominion UniversityFollow Document Type Presentation Publication Date 5-20-2020 Abstract To a large extent, determining whether an English learner has a language/learning disability is a process of elimination. There are no tests that can definitely tell us whether the student has a language/learning disability. Inappropriately identifying an EL student as having a language/learning disability can result in stigmatization or reduced access to academic content, but waiting too long to identify a student who truly has a language/learning disability can be the beginning or the extension of a cycle of communicative, academic, and/or social failure. Assessment of EL learners requires collaboration between classroom teachers and speech/language pathologists. This session will cover (1) factors that complicate the assessment of English learners; (2) multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) and performance-based assessment; (3) process assessments, and (4) dynamic narrative assessment. Comments This professional development webinar was presented by Dr. Carol Westby for speech-language pathologists in Virginia. It was funded by the Virginia Department of Education and hosted by Dr. Kimberly Murphy, Old Dominion University.
  • Bilingual (Spanish/English) Evaluation Resources 1
    Author: Bilinguistics - Dozens of speech, language, fluency, and other evaluation resources for bilingual evaluations

Activity List(s)

Visual Schedule Cards

Related Disorder(s)

  • Childhood language disorders - Childhood Language Disorders include: Preschool Language Disorders, Learning Disabilities (Reading, Spelling, and Writing), and Selective Mutism.
  • Childhood apraxia of speech - Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a disorder that involves difficulty in making speech sounds voluntarily and stringing these sounds together in the correct order to make words. A person with childhood apraxia of speech is not intellectually impaired. Speech pathologists assess, diagnose and support people with CAS.
  • Speech sound disorders - Speech sound disorders is an umbrella term referring to any difficulty or combination of difficulties with perception, motor production, or phonological representation of speech sounds and speech segments—including phonotactic rules governing permissible speech sound sequences in a language.
  • Motor Speech Disorders - Dysarthria can be related to neurological damage, however it can be related to many other causes. Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder above all. A dysarthria diagnoses can come from a weakened Parkinson’s patient, a anatomy damaged TBI patient, a stroke patient with cranial nerve and strength deficits, etc).


Goal Bank

  • Jane will increase the use of expressive vocabulary with familiar listeners in familiar settings. 0
  • Dylan will increase their verbal expression with familiar listeners across a 4 month therapy period. 0
  • Toby will display pre-literacy skills (identifying letters, words, book titles, etc.) across a 2 month treatment period. 0


Therapists who selected this major focus area as their top area of expertise.

  • Kayla Amberger

    Kayla Amberger

    Full-time Therapist CCC-SLP

    I'm a Speech Language Pathologist, and this is my 4th year working for Sidekick Therapy Partners!...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Jamie Henry

    Jamie Henry

    Full-time Therapist CCC-SLP

    My entire career has been spent working with children in the school setting. Over the years I hav...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Madison Collins

    Madison Collins

    Full-time Therapist CCC-SLP

    I am a Speech-Language Pathologist who works in the schools with students who range from 3 years ...

  • Chrisann Tipton

    Chrisann Tipton

    Full-time Therapist CF-SLP

    I work with clients ranging in ages from 3 to 14. My experience includes working with clients who...

  • Maggie Bill

    Maggie Bill

    Full-time Therapist CF-SLP

    I specialize in working with children with language delays in early intervention. I also work in ...

  • Savannah Kerstetter

    Savannah Kerstetter

    Full-time Therapist CCC-SLP

    I am a pediatric speech-language pathologist primarily working in schools. Outside of work, I enj...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Marcia Church

    Marcia Church

    Full-time Therapist Management CCC-SLP

    I’m Marcia Church, an ASHA certified Speech- Language Pathologist and a mother of two. I graduate...

    • Pediatric Speech Stars, PLLC Pediatric Speech Stars, PLLC
  • Olivia Barclay

    Olivia Barclay

    Full-time Therapist CF-SLP

    Hello there! I am a speech-language pathologist currently in the process of completing her clinic...

  • Natalie Norwood

    Natalie Norwood

    Full-time Therapist CF-SLP

    CF-SLP passionate about all things language! My specific experiences include working with childre...

  • Heather Smythe

    Heather Smythe

    Full-time Therapist CF-SLP

    I am a new Clinical Fellow and recent graduate from the University of Florida SLP-MA program. I a...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners