Speech Therapy -> Phonology


Phonology can be described as an aspect of language that deals with rules for the structure and sequencing of speech sounds. A phonological disorder may be characterized as a child who has numerous phoneme errors that can usually be grouped into categories (phonological processes), and they are usually not linked to oral motor difficulties and/or normal development.

Minor focus areas



Therapists who selected this major focus area as their top area of expertise.

  • Heather McCrillis

    Heather McCrillis

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    I love working with PreK and elementary school students. I really enjoy working with children who...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Erika Baldwin

    Erika Baldwin

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    Hi everyone! I've been been working for Sidekick Therapy Partners as a speech-language pathologis...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
  • Melissa Bridge

    Melissa Bridge

    Therapist CCC-SLP

    Born and raised in Syracuse, New York, I moved to Knoxville in the midst of a pandemic! I receive...

    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners
    • mbridge@mysidekicktherapy.com mbridge@mysidekicktherapy.com
  • Victoria Odell

    Victoria Odell

    Therapist CF-SLP
    • todell@mysidekicktherapy.com todell@mysidekicktherapy.com
    • Sidekick Therapy Partners Sidekick Therapy Partners

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Activity List(s)

Related Disorder(s)

  • Motor Speech Disorders - Dysarthria can be related to neurological damage, however it can be related to many other causes. Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder above all. A dysarthria diagnoses can come from a weakened Parkinson’s patient, a anatomy damaged TBI patient, a stroke patient with cranial nerve and strength deficits, etc).
  • Speech sound disorders - Speech sound disorders is an umbrella term referring to any difficulty or combination of difficulties with perception, motor production, or phonological representation of speech sounds and speech segments—including phonotactic rules governing permissible speech sound sequences in a language.
  • Childhood apraxia of speech - Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a disorder that involves difficulty in making speech sounds voluntarily and stringing these sounds together in the correct order to make words. A person with childhood apraxia of speech is not intellectually impaired. Speech pathologists assess, diagnose and support people with CAS.

Reference links

  • Bilingual (English/Spanish) Therapy Materials By Bilinguistics Author: Bilinguistics - Downloads and resources for providing bilingual therapy (Spanish/English)
  • Red Flags For Speech-Language Impairment In Bilingual Children Author: Scott Prath On ASHA Wire - Red Flags for Speech-Language Impairment in Bilingual Children Differentiate disability from disorder by understanding common developmental milestones.
  • Bilingual Language Development Video Author: Kathy Kohnert - YouTube Video on Bilingual Language Development by Kathy Kohnert
  • Articulation and Intelligibility Norms For Spanish and English Author: Bilinguistics - Articulation and Intelligibility Norms for Spanish and English by Bilinguistics
  • Language Difference vs Language Disorder: Assessing English Learners Author: Carol Westby and Kimberly Murphy - Video available Language Difference vs Language Disorder: Assessing English Learners Carol Westby, Bilingual and Multicultural Services, Albuquerque, NM Kimberly Murphy (Host), Old Dominion UniversityFollow Document Type Presentation Publication Date 5-20-2020 Abstract To a large extent, determining whether an English learner has a language/learning disability is a process of elimination. There are no tests that can definitely tell us whether the student has a language/learning disability. Inappropriately identifying an EL student as having a language/learning disability can result in stigmatization or reduced access to academic content, but waiting too long to identify a student who truly has a language/learning disability can be the beginning or the extension of a cycle of communicative, academic, and/or social failure. Assessment of EL learners requires collaboration between classroom teachers and speech/language pathologists. This session will cover (1) factors that complicate the assessment of English learners; (2) multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) and performance-based assessment; (3) process assessments, and (4) dynamic narrative assessment. Comments This professional development webinar was presented by Dr. Carol Westby for speech-language pathologists in Virginia. It was funded by the Virginia Department of Education and hosted by Dr. Kimberly Murphy, Old Dominion University.
  • Speech Development In Spanish and English: What the Differences Mean to SLPs Author: Bilinguistics - Speech Development in Spanish and English: What the differences mean to SLPs by Bilinguistics
  • The Effect of Dose Frequency On Treatment Efficacy For Children With Speech Sound Disorders Author: Kristen Marie Giesbrecht - Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are urged to make evidence-based treatment decisions, but it is challenging to determine the appropriate intervention intensity for children with speech sound disorders (SSD) due to limited published information. This study is a single subject, multiple baseline design that compares the phonological changes of four preschool children (4;0 to 4;9) who received therapy either twice a week or four times a week for a total of twenty, 50-minute sessions.
  • Nonword Repetition Tasks For Dynamic Assessment or Bilingual Evaluations Author: LeadersProject - Nonword Repetition Tasks (NWRT) can be used as a dynamic assessment as opposed to static assessment. NWRTs assess phonological working memory, speech perception, phonological assembly, and short term memory. These skills can have an impact on phonological awareness, word learning, and overall language acquisition. NWRTs are a useful tool to identify children/students with developmental language disorders because they are less culturally and linguistically biased than standardized language tests, as they do not call upon a child’s/student’s prior knowledge as many standardized tests do. Rather, NWRTs ask the child/student to repeat a series of nonwords of differing syllable length and complexity of sound combinations, thereby assessing linguistic abilities that have not been taught or learned previously. Nonword repetition tasks have been analyzed by number of consonants correct or number of items correct. There are different NWRTs for several languages, which contain phonemes specific for that particular language.
  • How Do Phonological Processes Differ Between Spanish and English? Author: Scott Prath - Description of how do Phonological Processes differ Between Spanish and English.
  • Evaluation of Bilingual Children- Considerations Author: Alejandro E. Brice and Roanne G. Brice - An overview of considerations when evaluating bilingual (Spanish/English) children
  • Bilingual (Spanish/English) Evaluation Resources Author: Bilinguistics - Dozens of speech, language, fluency, and other evaluation resources for bilingual evaluations
  • Language In Brief Author: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association - Language is a rule-governed behavior. It is defined as the comprehension and/or use of a spoken (i.e., listening and speaking), written (i.e., reading and writing), and/or other communication symbol system (e.g., American Sign Language).
  • Spanish Phonemic Inventory Author: ASHA - Spanish Phonemic Inventory and Facts about Spanish Phonemes by ASHA
  • Learning Two Languages: Bilingualism Author: ASHA - Information and resources for SLPs and parents of bilingual children
  • Multilingual, Multicultural, Bilingual Resource Link For SLPs Author: ASHA - Link includes ASHA resources and information related to evaluation and treatment of clients from linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds. Link includes ASHA resources to: Accent Modification Bilingual Service Delivery Collaborating With Interpreters, Transliterators, and Translators Cultural Competence Voice and Communication Services for Transgender and Gender Diverse Populations Dynamic Assessment Micro Course Cultural Competence Self Assessment Phonemic Inventories and Cultural and Linguistic Information Across Languages Collaboration With Interpreters: Securing Positive Outcomes Practical Assessment and Treatment Strategies for English Language Learners with Language Impairments Serving Clients From Diverse Backgrounds: Speech-Language Difference vs. Disorder Langu Continuing the Dialogue on Dialect: Positive Steps Toward Less Biased Assessments of Children Who Speak African American Englishage and Identity--Shifting Away from a Deficit Perspective on African American English Información en español
  • Bilingual Service Delivery Author: ASHA - Information and resources regarding bilingual service delivery by SLPs (from ASHA)