Occupational Therapy -> Activities of Daily Living / Self-care -> Toileting


This task includes transferring on/off toilet, managing supplies/clothing, emptying the bowel or bladder, and cleaning one’s self.

Reference links

  • Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines For Early Childhood: Birth–5 Years 2
    Author: Clark and Kingsley - Cognitive delays: home-, community-, and preschool-based interventions. To address cognitive development in premature infants, use of NIDCAP, home-based EI, touch-based interventions, and reading aloud to the child and incorporating home programs when working in clinics. The REDI program, the Read It Again program, and teaching specific cognitive skills all improved cognitive outcomes for a range of preschool-age children who were at risk for or had a specific diagnosis associated with developmental delays. Infant–maternal attachment: skin-to-skin, KC, and parent training programs such as the MIT program. The Incredible Years, MIT, and teacher training in PBIS were all effective in improving child behavior. Parenting behaviors: direct parent training, the Incredible Years, and PCIT. Parent-delivered massage, attachment training, and the Play Project are all interventions that showed a significant impact on parental stress, anxiety, or depression. Motor outcomes: use of NIDCAP, CIMT, and BIT for children at risk for and diagnosed with CP. Home-based interventions using parent coaching and clinic-based interventions that used home programs were also effective for short-term motor development, underscoring the value and benefit of well-written home programs and coaching parents to support their child’s development. Feeding and eating: repeated-exposure interventions, nonnutritive suck, and parent training to support the child’s feeding and eating are all effective options. Toileting: The use of a wetting alarm is supported when toilet training toddlers. Sleep: use of parent training, positioning devices in the NICU, and touch-based interventions are all effective. Citation: Gloria Frolek Clark, Karrie L. Kingsley; Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Early Childhood: Birth–5 Years. Am J Occup Ther May/June 2020, Vol. 74(3), 7403397010p1–7403397010p42. doi: https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.743001
  • Parents' Experiences of Professionals' Involvement For Children With Extreme Demand Avoidance 0
    Author: Emma Gore Langton 1, Norah Frederickson 1 - Parents felt positive about practitioners who had listened to their experiences, made efforts to understand the child, and provided or arranged for help. Parents found involvement most helpful when it resulted in comprehensive assessment, appropriate intervention, practical advice and management strategies, and a focus on the well-being of all family members. The overall ratings of helpfulness are encouraging, and the specific feedback about what is most helpful could be of value in shaping services.
  • Interventions Within the Scope of Occupational Therapy Practice to Improve Activities of Daily Living, Rest, and Sleep For Children Ages 0–5 Years and Their Families: A Systematic Review 2
    Author: Gronski and Doherty - Feeding and eating, toileting, rest and sleep. Behavioral approaches, parent and caregiver education, and contextual intervention. Interdisciplinary care, family coaching and education, and behavioral approaches within the professional scope of occupational therapy to improve the functional performance, routines, and quality of life for young children and their caregivers. Benefits of these interventions include improved falling and staying asleep, more frequent child-initiated toileting, and fewer negative mealtime behavior. Citation: Meredith Gronski, Meghan Doherty; Interventions Within the Scope of Occupational Therapy Practice to Improve Activities of Daily Living, Rest, and Sleep for Children Ages 0–5 Years and Their Families: A Systematic Review. Am J Occup Ther March/April 2020, Vol. 74(2), 7402180010p1–7402180010p33. doi: https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.039545

Activity List(s)

Goal Bank

  • Peter will complete proper toileting sequence independently with the support of a visual schedule on 3 consecutive sessions by March 5, 2023 . 0
  • Peter will sequence toileting visual schedule cards in the correct order with 2 verbal prompt by March 5, 2023. 0
  • With the use of information-based strategies such as schedules, calendar alerts, visuals of energy levels and regulation strategies, and bullets of the activity flow, Rhoda will meet physiological and physical needs related to eating, going to the bathroom, and recess with 80% modeling, in 4 /5 opportunities, in 2 months. 0
  • With regular (individually tailored) exercises and sensory diet, Patrick will demonstrate an appropriate level of arousal for 10 minutes in 4 /5 treatment sessions, with visual cues and 50% encouraging verbal cues for increased participation and functional independence in daily life. 0