Speech Therapy -> Expressive Language -> Reading


The ability to make meaning of combined letters by decoding words and speak them aloud in sentences.

Reference links

  • Why Systematic Phonics and Phonemic Awareness Instruction Constitute An Educational Hazard 2
    Author: Frank Smith - In this article, Frank Smith argues that "systematic" phonics instruction doesn't help and can interfere with learning to read.
  • Reading: A Review of the Current Research On Vocabulary Instruction 0
    Author: National Reading Technical Assistance Center, RMC Research Corporation - This review of current vocabulary research confirms the benefits of explicit teaching over implicit teaching in promoting vocabulary development. Results from this review suggest that effective and efficient research-based methods are available when selecting a particular instructional approach. The findings also suggest several instructional implications for promoting word knowledge: • Frequent exposure to targeted vocabulary words. Biemiller and Boote (2006) found that repeated Reading a storybook resulted in more significant average gains in word knowledge for young children. • Explicit instruction of targeted vocabulary words. Biemiller and Boote (2006) also found that word explanations taught directly during the reading of a storybook enhanced children’s understanding of word meanings. In addition, Nash and Snowling (2006) found that using a contextual approach to instruction produced more significant vocabulary gains than lessons that emphasized learning word definitions. • Questioning and language engagement. Scaffolding questions that are, moving from low-demand questions to high-demand questions promote greater gains in word learning (Blewitt, Rump, Shealy, & Cook, 2009). Vocabulary instruction should include teacher-student and interactive activities that target new words (Coyne, McCoach & Kapp, 2007). In summary, active vocabulary instruction should permeate a classroom and contain rich and exciting information. In addition, vocabulary instruction should cover many words that have been skillfully and carefully chosen to reduce vocabulary gaps and improve students’ abilities to apply word knowledge to the task of comprehension.
  • Reading Longer Words: Insights Into Multisyllabic Word Reading 2
    Author: Lindsay Heggie and Lesly Wade-Woolley - Students with persistent reading difficulties are often especially challenged by multisyllabic words; they tend to have neither a systematic approach for reading these words nor the confidence to persevere (Archer, Gleason, & Vachon, 2003; Carlisle & Katz, 2006; Moats, 1998). This challenge is magnified by the fact that the vast majority of English words are multisyllabic and constitute an increasingly large proportion of the words in elementary school texts beginning as early as grade 3 (Hiebert, Martin, & Menon, 2005; Kerns et al., 2016). Multisyllabic words are more difficult to read simply because they are long, posing challenges for working memory capacity. In addition, syllable boundaries, word stress, vowel pronunciation ambiguities, less predictable grapheme-phoneme correspondences, and morphological complexity all contribute to long words' difficulty. Research suggests that explicit instruction in both syllabification and morphological knowledge improve poor readers' multisyllabic word reading accuracy; several examples of instructional programs involving one or both of these elements are provided.
  • Should Adolescents Go Back to the Basics?: A Review of Teaching Word Reading Skills to Middle and High School Students 2
    Author: Laurice M. Joseph and Rebecca Schisler - This review investigates the effects of word reading interventions (e.g., phonic analysis, sight word reading, oral reading fluency) on reading achievement outcomes in middle and high school students (grades 6 through 12) with mixed conditions (e.g., learning disabilities, intellectual disabilities, emotional/behavioral disabilities).
  • Segmentation and Representation of Consonant Blends In Kindergarten Children’s Spellings 0
    Author: Krystal L. Werfel and C. Melanie Schuele - During the period of emergence, the properties of phonemes that comprise consonant blends influence children’s ability to segment and represent blends. This finding has implications for how phonemic awareness, spelling instruction, and intervention might proceed. Results Kindergarten children showed varied ability to segment and represent consonant blends and were differentially successful depending on the linguistic features of the blends. Children were more likely to represent initial blends than final blends, final nonnasal blends than final nasal blends, nonhomorganic blends than homorganic blends, and initial nasal blends than final nasal blends.

Activity List(s)

Visual Schedule Cards

Related Disorder(s)

  • Childhood language disorders - Childhood Language Disorders include: Preschool Language Disorders, Learning Disabilities (Reading, Spelling, and Writing), and Selective Mutism.

Goal Bank

  • Given visual and verbal stimuli, Coleman will expressively segment, manipulate and blend phonemes together (initial, medial, and final positions of words) with 90% accuracy across 3 therapy sessions to improve auditory processing skills. 3