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Speech Therapy -> Fluency -> Cognitive Restructuring
Cognitive restructuring refers to changing underlying thoughts about an individual’s communication. Strategies to target cognitive restructuring can include reframing thoughts (looking at a thought or a situation in a different way), contingency planning (If a certain event or thought happens, I will do this action), or challenging thoughts (e.g., That thought isn’t true because...).
- Stuttering and other fluency disorders - A fluency disorder is an interruption in the flow of speaking characterized by atypical rate, rhythm, and disfluencies (e.g., repetitions of sounds, syllables, words, and phrases; sound prolongations; and blocks), which may also be accompanied by excessive tension, speaking avoidance, struggle behaviors, and secondary mannerisms (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA], 1993). People with fluency disorders also frequently experience psychological, emotional, social, and functional impacts as a result of their communication disorder (Tichenor & Yaruss, 2019a). Stuttering is the most common fluency disorder.